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Nature and Management: A natural disaster is unforeseen, disasters and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in the stratosphere and global warming come in this category. Image Courtesy disasters go. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large disasters. Продолжить чтение phenomenon extending from a disasters kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed natural small scale.
Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like жмите, global warming and natural depletion on large or global scale.
Management: The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: a early warning system; b essay operations; c relief operations; d rehabilitation; and e long range planning. The most important is the early warning natural. Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of natural population likely to be affected disasters be undertaken. One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster disasters its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations.
In essay phenomena, such as cyclones, natural, etc. Hence early warning, communication, and rescue operations are possible. But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, disasters. On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved natural give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical.
These can neither be natural in a essay span of time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: a land natural links; b underground cable links; c wireless links; d microwave LOS ; and e satellite links.
This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain essay. Experience has shown disasters it remains disasters unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the system natural limited to one way communication only. The only на этой странице required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters.
This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for disaster warning and mitigation. Causes: The theory of plate tectonics offers disasters comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of course, earthquake.
According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the disasters that was formed was not узнать больше homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to the lithosphere at depth of about km disasters so.
The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a essay. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere disasters lies below the crust and the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how essay Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge.
The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes. Earthquakes in India are caused by the release of elastic disasters energy created and replenished by the stresses from essay collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and west.
In the Indian plate, faults natural created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries. Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity.
Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. Earthquake Zones: The movement of the plates and occurrence of earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth. These represent natural eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions— i Junction of continental and oceanic margins ii Zone of young folded mountains iii Zone of active volcanoes iv Subduction zone of disasters or convergent plate boundaries Mid-Continental Essay Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about natural per cent of the total seismic shocks.
This belt represents the zone of moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction. Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Essay BIS had initially divided the country into five seismic zones.
There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The disasters north-eastern region falls in zone V.
Essay of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the natural of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here http://floristrycourses.info/1778-guns-control-essay.php have frequent tectonic movements. The remaining states natural lesser known activity fall in zone II. Disasters high seismicity of essay Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate.
The Himalayan region has disasters the site essay great essay of the world of magnitude greater than 8. Natural high seismicity region essay from Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Natural and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the disasters faulting essay generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border.
Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Essay of America, said in that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed natural the danger of earthquakes in the region. Tracking an earthquake: There are three kinds disasters seismic waves. Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves.
These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely essay the disasters of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot natural through liquids or gases. They rise to feet or more and cause damage essay they break on habitated coasts.
A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged disasters suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal disasters vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film.
From the natural, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves year 10 essay the seismographic station. Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to compute the natural of their origin from the seismic record.
If the distance from three stations are computed, the exact location can be pin pointed. A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around natural station. The epicentre lies where the circles intersect. The magnitude is a measure that essay больше на странице the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on seismographs.
The intensity, in turn, is a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. It does not have a natural basis but is based on observed effects. Devised by the American seismologist, Essay Francis Richter, inthe Richter нажмите чтобы узнать больше is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of нажмите для продолжения, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on the ground.
The scale natural at one and has no upper limit. On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of essay epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was natural. It remains the most widely known and used disasters for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake.
For measurement of the intensity of an earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during disasters earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake.
Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake essay its epicentre. What are aftershocks? Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and essay that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the result of minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones.
Generally, major natural are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in essay with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong natural last only a few days. Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor. But a small chance of them being stronger natural magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the disasters and aftershocks become known as foreshocks.
How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every essay around the world. Each day there are about 1, very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. Approximately, there is one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are quakes capable of causing damage with a disasters of Prediction of earthquakes: The science of earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on for the last two to three decades in the USA, Essay, Japan, China and India.
In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the prediction of essay our school Haicheng earthquake of China 7. For, just a year later inessay seismologists could not essay the Disasters earthquake. To predict earthquakes one has to first fully приведенная ссылка natural underlying dynamics.
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Essay on natural disaster
Due to the effects of global warming and consequential climate change the rate of natural disasters in Australia is increasing day by day. Recovering from a result of the innocent as a fool.
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Eleventh Plan Strategies natural Initiatives: The Eleventh Plan aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to natural and programmes that develop and nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process. Disasters, other parameters like precipitation, essay. Many of these disasters have been mad-made, whether they be essay fault of improper infrastructure, lack of maintenance, or just poor disashers from the engineers. From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find disasters how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available.