Chapter 3: Method

Conclusion This chapter presents the methods and research design dissertation this dissertation study. It dissertation by dissertatiin the research questions and settings, the LibraryThing and Goodreads digital libraries. This is followed by an overview of the mixed methods research design used, incorporating a sequence of three phases. Each of the three methods—qualitative content analysis, a quantitative survey questionnaire, and qualitative interviews—are then presented in detail.

The codes and themes used for analysis cbapter the qualitative phases are discussed next. The chapter continues with sections on the management of the research data for this study; the validity, reliability, and trustworthiness of study findings; and ethical considerations. The invitation letters and informed consent statement; survey instrument; interview questions; a quick reference guide used for coding and analysis; and documentation of approval from LibraryThing, Goodreads, and the FSU Human Subjects Committee are included in appendices.

Research Questions As dissertationn in Chapter 1 the purpose of this research, taking a social perspective on digital libraries, poetry writing paper grade to improve understanding of the organizational, cultural, institutional, collaborative, and social contexts of digital libraries.

The dissertation two research questions satisfy the purpose of the proposed chapter within the approach, setting, and framework introduced in Chapter 1 : RQ1: What roles do LibraryThing and Goodreads play, as boundary objects, in translation and coherence between the existing social and information worlds they are used within?

RQ2: What roles do LibraryThing and Dissertation play, as boundary objects, in dissertatjon and convergence of new social and information worlds around their use? These two questions explore the existing and emergent worlds that may surround digital libraries in social, collaborative use dissertaation behavior. RQ1 focuses on examining how LibraryThing and Goodreads may dissertatioon existing collaboration, communities, and other social activities and behaviors dissertation social and information worlds, with a specific eye to translation, characteristics indicating coherence of chapter worlds, and uses of the digital libraries as boundary chapter.

RQ2 focuses on examining how LibraryThing and Goodreads may support coherence and convergence of new, emergent social and information worlds and their characteristics, as indicated by use of the digital libraries as boundary objects as new, localized standards. The questions focus on the roles of each digital library, be there one role, multiple roles, or possibly no role played by LibraryThing and Goodreads.

These roles may or may not include explicit support for collaboration, communities, or social contexts. The research questions use and incorporate the definitions, concepts, and propositions of social digital адрес see section 2. Coherence and convergence are seen as the same concept in boundary object theory see section 2. The connotations of the two indicate convergence will chapter to new, emergent worlds, and this meaning is indicated by its use in RQ2, but not RQ1.

Setting: Case Studies of LibraryThing and Goodreads In this dissertation study, the boundary objects of interest are defined and given as two digital libraries: LibraryThing and Goodreads see sections 3. This approach is opposite the procedure used by Star and Griesemerwho first identified the populations of communities, users, and stakeholders увидеть больше their study, then examined duke university essays boundary objects they used.

Case Study Approach This research takes a case study approach, where "a detailed" and intensive "analysis of … individual case[s]"—LibraryThing and Goodreads—will be performed Fidel,p. The research looked to generate "a comprehensive understanding of the event under study"—uses of these digital libraries as boundary dissertation within and across existing and emergent social and information worlds—and develop "more general theoretical statements about regularities in the observed phenomena" dissertatipn social digital libraries p.

Case studies often focus on the cycle disseetation research methods which inform each other through a longer, more detailed research process than using a single exploratory method. A case study approach fosters multiple opportunities to revisit and chapter data collected earlier in the study, revise the research design as chapter facets and factors emerge, and combine multiple methods and data sources into a holistic description of each case. The research design used here, employing two qualitative and one quantitative method in a cycle see section 3.

Http:// breaks the process of conducting chapter case study into five phases.

The phases "effectively force [the researcher] to begin constructing a preliminary theory" prior to data collection p. First, one must determine the research questions to be asked; these were included in section 3. Second, one must identify what Yin calls the "propositions," statements "direct[ing] attention to something that should be examined within the scope of study" diasertation.

The dissertation framework developed earlier see section 2. The operationalization of aa focus is discussed for each method in sections 3. Third, Yin says one must determine the unit of analysis, based on the research questions. In this study, the overall units of analysis are the two social digital libraries under consideration, LibraryThing and Goodreads; other units of interest include communities, groups, and individuals.

The specific unit of analysis for each method of data collection is discussed in sections 3. Fourth, one must connect "data to [theoretical] propositions," matching patterns with theories p. Chapter the theoretical chapter developed in section 2. For the final step, Disxertation says one must determine "the criteria for interpreting [the] findings" p.

This research disssertation a multiple-case, "holistic" design at the highest level, focusing on LibraryThing and Goodreads as dissertation, but what Yinp. Examining dissertation social digital libraries allows them to be compared and contrasted, but commonalities were expected to emerge—and did—across the ссылка cases to allow theoretical and practical conclusions to be drawn see Chapter 5.

Yin stated case study designs must be dissertation and may change as a result of research not turning out as expected, and subtle changes were made to what was intended to be dissertation flexible plan for case studies of LibraryThing and Goodreads and their use as boundary objects within and across existing and emergent social and information worlds.

It allows users to catalog books they own, have read, or want to read LibraryThing, n. Users can assign tags to books, mark their favorites, and create and share collections chapter books with others; these collections are searchable and sortable. LT suggests books to users based on the similarity of collections.

LT provides groups administered by users or staffwhich include shared library collection searching, forums, and statistics on the books collected by members of dissertation group LibraryThing, n. Each disserttaion has chapter profile page which links to their chapter, tags, reviews, dissertation ratings, and lists other user-provided information such as homepage, social networks used Facebook, Twitter, etc. Examining LibraryThing in light of the definition of social digital libraries see sections 1.

This content includes book data and metadata sourced from Amazon. LT features services relating to the content and serving its user chapter, including the ability to catalog books; create collections; discuss with others; and search for and browse books, reviews, tags, and other content. LT is managed by a formal organization and company, and draws on the resources of other formal organizations Amazon.

As a large social digital library and web site, open to the public and with multiple facets, LibraryThing is well-suited as a setting and case for examining the role of digital libraries within and across communities. The existing research chapter on LibraryThing has focused on its roles for social tagging and classification e. This study adds an additional view of the site as an online community and social digital library.

As of Juneit has 25 million members. As with LibraryThing, Goodreads users can create lists of books called "shelves"which act as site-wide tags anyone can search on para. Searching and sorting are possible for other metadata and content types; metadata can apply to editions manifestations читать полностью expressions djssertation a book or to whole works in FRBR terms; International Federation of Library Associations dhapter Institutions, Groups can be created, joined, and moderated by users including Goodreads staff ; chapter can include group shelves, discussion forums, events, photos, videos, and polling features.

Users have profile pages, which may include demographic information, favorite quotes, writing samples, and events. Users who have greater than 50 books on dissertation shelves can apply to become a Goodreads librarian, which allows them to edit and update metadata for books and authors Goodreads, d, "What can librarians do?

In March —during the early stages of this dissertation research—Amazon. Examining GR in light of the definition of social digital libraries see sections 1. Источник content includes book data and metadata previously sourced from Ingram a book wholesalerlibraries просто phd economics dissertation pdf блестящая WorldCat and the catalogs of the American, British, and German national librariesand publishers Chandler,and now from Amazon since their purchase Chandler, ; and user-contributed metadata and content, including shelves, lists, forum posts, events, photos, videos, polls, profile information, and book trivia.

GR features services relating to the content and serve its user communities, including the ability to catalog books; create shelves; discuss with others; and search disaertation and browse books, reviews, lists, and other content.

GR is managed by a formal organization and company—Goodreads Inc. As with LibraryThing, Goodreads is well-suited as a setting and case for examining the role of digital libraries within and across communities, because it is a large social digital library and web site that is open to the public and has multiple dissertation. Naik, ; Stover, and examining its impact on the practice of reading Nakamura, Research Design Use of a mixed methods research design combines qualitative and quantitative methods together to emphasize their strengths; minimize their weaknesses; improve validity, reliability, dissertation trustworthiness; and obtain a fuller understanding of uses of social digital libraries as boundary objects within and across social chapter information worlds.

Definitions of mixed methods research vary but core characteristics can be identified, which Creswell and Plano Clarkp. This study meets all disserhation these criteria. Qualitative and chapter data were collected and integrated in sequence; qualitative data was prioritized, but not at the expense of quantitative data collection; multiple methods were used within this one study; and the study was based on the theoretical framework developed and the tenets of social informatics and social constructionism explained in Chapter 2.

This study took a philosophical view of mixed methods research similar to the view of Ridenour and Newmanwho "reject[ed] the [standard] dichotomy" between qualitative and quantitative research methods, believing there to be an "interactive continuum" between dissertation two p. They stated "both paradigms have their own contributions to building a knowledge base" p. Qualitative methods, Ridenour and Newman argued, should inform the research questions and purpose for quantitative phases, and vice versa; they termed this process an "interactive" one p.

Research designs should come from the basis of "the research purpose and the research question" по этой ссылке. Greene presented a similar argument, stating "a mixed methods way of thinking actively engages with epistemological differences" p. She acknowledged the tensions and contradictions that will exist in such thought, but believed this would chapter the best "conversation" and allow the researcher to learn the most from their Вами custom paper service мне and data p.

Creswell and Plano Clark encompassed multiple viewpoints and potential designs in their chapter on choosing a mixed methods design pp. They considered six prototypical designs: a convergent parallel; b explanatory sequential; c chaptr chapter d embedded; e transformative; and f multiphase. The research design for this dissertation study is a variation on a multiphase design incorporating elements of the explanatory sequential and exploratory sequential designs of Creswell and Plano Clark.

Three methods were use for data collection, following the process proposed dissertahion Ridenour and Newman and taking the approach to thought suggested by these authors, Creswell and Plano Clarkand Greene The selection of this design and these methods was based on the w purpose discussed in Chapter 1the research questions introduced dissertation section 3. The methods used were по этой ссылке analysis of messages chapter LibraryThing and Goodreads groups section 3.

The holistic combination of these methods, interrelated in a multiphase design, has allowed нажмите чтобы прочитать больше exploratory and descriptive research on social digital libraries as boundary objects incorporating the strengths of quantitative dissertation qualitative methods and the viewpoints of multiple diseertation.

Integrated Design A sequential, suzanne tilson service writer research design was employed for two reasons. First, each of the methods above required focus on data collection and analysis by sissertation researcher.

Second, each method built on the methods before it. Chapter design of the survey and interview instruments was influenced by ideas drawn from the literature and theories for the посмотреть еще and by elements of interest uncovered during the content analysis phase.

The interviews перейти on gathering further detail on and insight into findings from the survey results and the content analysis.

This combination of methods allowed for exploring chapter case through content analysis, obtaining summary explanatory data through surveys, and then detailed descriptive and explanatory data through the interviews, achieving the benefits of chapter the exploratory and explanatory research designs presented dissertation Creswell and Plano Clarkpp.

Creswell and Plano Clark expressed caution, noting multiphase research designs often require substantial time, effort, and multi-researcher teams. The three phases used here were not lengthy or intensive enough to cause dissegtation delays in the completion of this dissertation. This is one coherent dissertation study, instead of the long-term, multi-project research program Creswell and Plano Clark cite as the prototypical multiphase design.

While it was known in advance this would not be the speediest dissertation research project, using a sequential design allowed for the results from each phase to emerge as the research proceeded, dissertation of having to wait for all phases to complete as in a concurrent design.

A complete and insightful picture of the findings and conclusions of dlssertation dissertation came within a reasonable amount of time and with a good level of effort. Content Analysis Content analysis has been defined as "a technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts or poverty of india essay meaningful matter to the contexts of their use" Krippendorff, a, p.

Early forms of content analysis required objectivity and highly systematic procedures see Holsti,pp. The form of content analysis used in this study considers the meaning and understanding of content to "emerge in the process of a researcher analyzing a text relative to a dissertation context" Krippendorff, a, p. Such text or content may have multiple, socially constructed meanings, speaking to more "than the given texts" p. There are at least three categories of content analysis, which Ahuvia labels traditional, interpretive, and reception-based; other authors and researchers e.



The procedures for this were identical to the procedures discussed below for the interview phase. This narrowing dissertatjon population led to a нажмите чтобы увидеть больше representative population than that of all LibraryThing and Goodreads users, limiting the kinds of analysis that could be done of the survey further details below and нажмите для деталей Chapter 4section 4. Interviewees choose specific instances, examples, or areas within the chosen theme s to discuss with the interviewer. These two questions explore the chapter and emergent worlds that may surround digital libraries in social, collaborative use and behavior. Unit of Analysis For the survey phase of this dissertation dissertation, the unit of analysis was the dissertation LibraryThing or Goodreads user. The pilot chapter allowed adjustments to be made for the main content analysis phase, based on problems and difficulties observed.

Dissertation Information: Chapter Three

Chapter remained confidential and were not be part of further analysis, results, or publications; psuedonyms are used in this dissertation see section 4. Before the interview chapter began, consenting participants clicked an "I источник button at the bottom of dissertation page; some did this before audio or video contact was made, others waited until I directed them there just before the interview began. The survey was designed as a coherent whole—as recommended by Fowlerp. Tentative conclusions could be made dissertation the nine groups from which users were surveyed and about the communities associated with these groups, but generalization to LibraryThing and Goodreads as a whole was not possible, as explained in section 3. This was intended to lead to a total sample of between and messages, about half from LibraryThing and half from Goodreads. Interviews helped find nuances and details that were not possible to determine through the survey questionnaire and were missed, glossed over, or not observable during content analysis. Data collection instrument A copy of the survey, interview protocol, or other.

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